Tuesday , September 27 2022

Genetics plays a lesser role in the lifespan than we thought


Historic family trees show useful new insights into the genetics of longevity, but they represent a world of different health risks.
Enlarge / Historic family trees show useful new insights into the genetics of longevity, but they represent a world of different health risks.

Romantic scenes that never happen: your eyes fill. Your heart is peeling. This person is the one – you are sure of that, because you are convinced that she will live for at least 95 years. What you always dreamed about.

Lifetime does not usually appear on the human lists of what they are looking for in a partner. But, according to a newspaper published this week in the magazine Genetics, longevity is largely related to marital relationships, which means that people are pretty good at choosing partners living a similar lifetime. Ignoring this behavior meant that estimates of the genetic contribution of longevity were significantly overloaded.

I knew I saw your bloodshed

Nobody chooses a partner based on how long they will live. As the authors of the newspaper obviously notice, life expectancy "can not be observed until death, with the ending of the mating opportunity". But, as people who have ever dated can tell you, people will probably marry for their match (or near it) in characteristics such as wealth and education, which play an obvious role in longevity.

J. Graham Rubi, the lead author on paper, works for Calico Life Sciences, a research and development company financed by Alphabet. Kalik's "mission is to take advantage of advanced technologies to increase our understanding of biology that controls the lifespan." Thus, Ruby used a huge amount of data from Ancestri.com to explore the role of gene in the life councils of more than 400,000 people born in the 1990s and early 20th century.

When it comes to complex features such as life expectancy, a large number of genes will play a role, and so will a variety of environmental factors, so the role of genes is described in terms of how much variability can explain. Genetic impact estimates ranged from about 15 to 30 percent, which means that up to 30 percent of the variations you see in your lifetime can be explained by genetic differences among people.

Estimates vary in part due to differences in data sources and calculation methods, and partly because statistics will not be the same in different populations: countries differ from the most common causes of death, the risk factors that people face and how many different people are exposed to the same risk factors. For example, in a poor country with a high risk of infectious diseases and deaths at birth, a handful of wealthy citizens can avoid these risks through costly health care. It will look very different from a rich, egalitarian country where cancer is one of the greatest causes of death.

Your lifetime is in correlation with the bride

Calculations are complicated, but thinking behind them is simple: when genes play a role in their character, they should be pretty similar to your parents and parents, a little less resembling your relatives, less like your other relatives, and so on. Ruby and his colleagues used family tree data to investigate whether the lifespan is similar between the closer and far-fetched relatives. This has produced estimates of heritability similar to those previously calculated: the lifetime of brothers and sisters were highly correlated, the first relatives were less connected and so on.

But the life span of spouses was also correlated. This can easily be explained by spouses who share the same family and lifestyle: eat the same healthy diet or puffing on cigarettes together. But the researchers observed something strange: the life relatives of other relatives linked only to marriage Too correlated. This can not be explained by the genome, but can not be explained by a common environment.

So Rubi and his colleagues began to explore the lifetime of the law. They looked at sisters and first cousins, and then, in relationships such as the "sister of a spouse / sibling" (your brother's sister) and "spouse of a spouse" (sister husband husband). Even in these distant relationships, life expectancies have been correlated – if the spouse of your spouse's wife lives to mature age, this means that you are likely to do the same.

What is happening here is a mating assortment: people will probably marry people who meet them with certain characteristics, such as education and wealth, and these traits are related to longevity. This high level of assortment of mating greatly inflated the heritability estimate. Once this was taken into account, Ruby and his colleagues came to a much lower figure of seven percent of the genetic impact – the most. These seven percent include genetics, as well as genetic inherited traits, such as healthy or unhealthy habits that parents pass on to their children. These two things may be inconvenient for separation, but it is fair to assume that the contribution of genetics is only lower.

It is an assessment that can change and probably already exists, because this study is based on a historical gathering of people born in very different health resorts and very different marriages. The Ancestri.com database is also largely populated by the details of American families with European heritage, which restricts generalization to other groups, countries, cultures, and times. But these are essential observations for thinking about statistics of heritability in general, because the assortment of mating covers all kinds of characteristics. There is also a negative assortment of mating, also known as "attracting contradictions," to get involved.

This could look like a disappointing result for a company that is interested in "biology that controls life expectancy." However, aging and disease processes are still biologically, even if the causes of these processes lie in our genes than previously thought. In fact, an investigation into what makes the biggest difference in people's lives can be just what gives the most striking answers.

Genetics, 2018. DOI: 10.1534 / genetics.118.301613 (O DOIs).

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