In a recent study published in Journal of Infectious Diseases, researchers have gained insight into the coverage of HPV vaccines among teenagers.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a viral-transmissible viral infection. There are over 100 variants of HPV and are considered to be the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). HPV is contracted through sexual contact; However, it can also be obtained through skin contact to the skin. Sexual intercourse is not needed for HPV contraction. HPV can disappear on its own, but if it persists in the body, it can cause various health problems. These health problems include cervical cancer and other types of cancer, genital warts and warts on other parts of the body.
In a study he published Journal of Infectious Diseases, researchers report that the Immunization Immunization Advisory Board encourages the introduction of a vaccine against HPV at the age of 11 or 12 years. This is so that the adolescent can be fully vaccinated by age 13. If an adolescent gets a vaccine 15 years agoth birthday, only two doses are needed. If they get HPV vaccine after 15 years, three doses for complete immunization are required.
In 2016, only 43% of American adolescents were fully vaccinated against HPV. Statistics from the National Survey on Family Growth suggest that up to 15 years more than 10% of women and more than 15% of men experience sexual encounter.
The researchers analyzed data from the 2016 National Immunization Survey – Teen (NIS-Teen). NIS-Teen randomly examined adolescent parents (aged 13 to 17). This was completed through a randomized phone call and was conducted in the United States. If parents were granted a permit, NIS interviewers contacted a health worker (s) of adolescent about the history of vaccination.
After getting a history of vaccination, the interviewers identified adolescents with the status of vaccination for HPV. Factors such as: where the states lived, how many health care providers, racial / ethnicity, age, gender and status of poverty were affected. Of 43,071 parents, 20,880 allowed interviewers to contact health facilities. The researchers only analyzed data on those who lived in the United States and the District of Columbia for a total of 20,475 parents.
Less than 50% of teenagers received complete HPV vaccination
The results showed that less than 50% (43.4%) of adolescents aged 13 to 17 received complete HPV vaccination. Moreover, the number of adolescents who have been fully vaccinated against HPV by the age of 13 is slightly above 15% (15.7%). Further analyzes showed that 34.8% of adolescents received complete HPV vaccinations up to 15 years.
Female adolescents were more likely than men to be affected by the HPV vaccine. Latin American adolescents have shown that they have a higher vaccination rate than any other race or ethnicity. Adolescents with a lower status of poverty in households show a higher rate of vaccination than adolescents of other household status.
It is interesting that if adolescents have more than one doctor, it is more likely that they will not be in the HPV vaccine. This may be due to the absence of a certain "home" when it comes to medical matters. Countries like Delaware, Hawaii, Louisiana, New Mexico and Rhode Island have shown the highest rates for complete HPV vaccinations. While countries such as Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas and Wyoming have shown the lowest number for complete HPV vaccination.
High concern about incomplete HPV vaccines
After reviewing the data, researchers are very concerned that HPV vaccines are not introduced and end up to recommended years. If an adolescent receives her HPV vaccine before sexual activity arises, the vaccine will be more effective than receiving it afterwards.
HPV vaccine is not the only recommended vaccine in those early years. Acellular pertussis vaccine, diphtheria vaccine, tetanus vaccine and quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine are also recommended. Receiving one or more of these vaccines increases the chances of adolescents to receive more or all.
The limitations of this study included a limited sample size. Also, the response rate of randomized calls within NIS-Teen was low. Although there were some limitations, this was a strong study that included the United States and the District of Columbia. The low completion rate of HPV vaccine is certainly a problem. More studies on this topic will reveal the coverage of HPV vaccines in other areas, and we hope to educate the public about its relevance.
Written by Laura Laroche, HBASc, Medical Vriter
- Bednarczik, Robert A., Ellingson, Mallori K., and Omer, Saad B. "Vaccination of human papillomavirus before age 13 and 15: Analysis of data on national immunization research". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2019. 1-5. On line.
- Infection with human papillomavirus. 2019, https: //vv.healthline.com/health/human-papillomavirus-infection#simptoms, estimated February 2, 2019.
- Vaccination rates against HPV remain critically low among younger adolescents in the United States. 2019, https: //vv.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-01/idso-hvr011619.php, estimated February 2, 2019.