Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, a philanthropist and one of the richest people in the world, was invited by MIT Technologie Reviev to choose 10 inventions in 2019, which will, in his opinion, sow the seeds to the future.
From the robots to the synthetic burgers of meat, the entrepreneur develops a list of technologies and innovations that will change the lives of all, and which are already starting to be available.
1. Robots with skill
While industrial robots can execute more tasks with complete precision, remain unfriendly e inflexible. However, a new generation of machines is being taught manage the physical world.
Gates cites an example of Dactyl, a robot who learned to handle a toy block. These robots get, through trial and error, Take the objects without breaking them After observing, very human skills and that it is almost impossible for a robot to achieve.
For example, we can mention a robot trained by a group of researchers from the same Massachusetts Institute of Technology, so plai Jenga, a game that requires excellent fine motor skills so that the block of towers does not fall.
Gates believes that thanks to this advancement, robots will no longer be "clumsy" in less than 5 years.
2. Renewal of nuclear energy
The advanced fusion and fission reactors they become reality. New designs that got a swing last year promise to make this energy source safer and cheaper.
Gates quotes fission reactors fourth generationthe evolution of traditional design; small modular reactors; and fusion reactors, a technology that seemed eternally unattainable.
These inventions are coming back safer nuclear energyand much less harmful to the environment. Its creators believe that they could supply electricity by 2020.
3. Anticipate early marriage aye
Simply blood test can predict if the pregnant woman is at risk of delivery Too early.
One in 10 babies was born prematurely. EFE / Attila Balazs
Stephen Kuake, a bioengineer from Stanford, found a way to deal with one of the most serious medical problems: approximately one in 10 babies are born prematurely.
By sequencing RNA floats in the mother's bloodKuake can detect the fluctuations he indicates as being associated with premature birth. This allows you to identify the women they have probability birth Too early. Once warned, doctors can take steps to prevent premature birth and give the child a greater chance of survival.
4. Intestinal probe in the pill
A small device What can you do? swallow records detailed hoses without the need for anesthesia, even in infants and children.
The capsule developed by Guillermo Tearnei (The Tearnei Lab)
Villiam Tearnei, pathologist and engineer at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston artefacts of the size of the pill which can be used for examination of the intestine and even for tissue biopsy. Unlike an endoscope, they are easily used in the primary care center.
This invention could be crucial in detecting diseases such as enteric bowel dysfunction (EED), one of the most expensive and heavily diagnosed.
The capsule is being tested on humans, and this year tests on children will begin.
5. Personalized cancer vaccine
The scientists are ready market the the first personalized cancer vaccine. If it functions as expected, the vaccine, which activates the immune system of a person to identify the tumor with its unique mutations, can effectively cure many types of cancer.
The treatment is encouraging natural defense of the body to destroy only cancer cells by identifying unique mutations for each tumor.
The possibility of developing this kind of vaccine began to be developed in 2008, five years after the human genome project was completed. The goal of the trial is at the very least 10 types of cancer and aims to recruit more than 560 patients worldwide.
6. Burger without a cow
The animal husbandry for human consumption harmful effects for the environment. That's why they work so hard alternatives that are grown in the laboratory like other based on plants which approximate the taste and nutritive value of real meat without harmful effects.
Researchers at the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands are working on it meat grown in the laboratory to have a laboratory-baked hamburger at their disposal by 2020.
However, the benefits to the environment are still very high scarce in this type of system: a recent report of the World Economic Forum says that greenhouse gas emissions from laboratory-grown meat would be only around 7% discount from the production of beef.
Better results at the environmental level vegetables companies such as Beiond Meat and Impossible Foods, which use peas, soy, wheat, potato and vegetable oil proteins to imitate the texture and taste of animal meat.
According to the analysis of the Center for Sustainable Systems at the University of Michigan, a hamburger of this type produces 90% less emissions than a conventional hamburger from a cow.
7. "Catchers" of carbon dioxide
Concerning the previous point and problem emissions of greenhouse gases, for Gates it is necessary to find the ways in which catching carbon dioxide reduce environmental changes.
To avoid dangerous increase in temperature, The UN climate panel warns that the world must eliminate 1 trillion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in this century.
David Keith, a Harvard scientist, has shown that it is possible to catch one ton carbon dioxide at an eye price $ 100. The problem is what to do with these trapped particles.
Canadian startup now suggests generating fuel using trapped carbon dioxide as its main ingredient. Other suggestions include the use of carbon dioxide in production soda.
However, Eliminate CO2 from the air is, from an engineering perspective, one of the most important hard i expensive deal with climate change. But given the slowness of emission reductions, there are no other options.
8. Electrocardiogram on the wrist
Technological advances make it easier for people continuous monitoring of their hearts with portable devices.
Apple Vatch has the capacity to perform electrocardiograms. Justin Sullivan / Getti Images / AFP
Smartvatches enabled to perform electrocardiograms offer a convenience a portable device with accuracy near a medical device, who can warn of an emergency or contacts in case of discovery of heart failure.
Apple Vatch was pioneer in this area, but several companies are developing complementary sensors that they can detect some kind of cardiac insufficiency.
9. Waste treatment without sewage
One of the projects in which Gates is heavily involved has to do with creating a new species toilets It can work without sewage system and treat waste in situ.
Bill Gates and a toilet that does not need water or connects to any sewage system.
The proper sewage system is missing bacteria, virus i parasites what can cause it diarrhea i rage. Diarrhea causes one of nine death of children Worldwide
Researchers are working on it a new type of toilet That is enough cheap for developing countries that can not only eliminate waste but treat it.
In 2011, Gates launched a a global challenge to invent VC. Since then, several teams from all over the world have achieved successful prototypes, although this is still not feasible produce them on a large scale.
10. Virtual assistants who can conduct conversations
Aleka, Siri and the Google Assistant they are increasingly involved in our lives. However, these systems are based on artificial intelligence they recognize only a narrow set of directives and easily tripping with language deviations.
But some recent progress will soon expand the repertoire of these virtual assistants, such as the technique developed by OpenAI researchers, which will allow them to move from simple commands a Keep talking with robots.
Some of these developments are already being used as Google Duplek, a restless human innovation by Google Assistant, which can answer phone calls and categorize them as spam, or you can invite to make reservations in restaurants or similar places.
But although artificial intelligence programs they improved As for knowing what the user wants, I still can not understand the phrase, reflecting how difficult it is to equip machines with a true understanding of the language. It's once cross This obstacle, we will be in the presence of a true revolution.