So far, specialists have not found samples that provide real evidence of climate change mechanisms in such ancient times. Eisen, researcher Institute Alfred Vegener German, he advanced in the dialogue ambito.com that is the main discovery they can get "The composition of the atmosphere in terms of gases with a greenhouse effect, mainly carbon dioxide and methane".
Above all, during the transition from glacial cycles to the period of the middle Pleistocene, which still contains many questions for specialists. "It is necessary to understand these processes in the Earth's climate system, we do not fully understand what led to the transition and change of ice-interglacial periods", he added.
The time limit is marked by the first European project for the extraction of ice in Antarctica (European Antarctic Ice Cream Project about EPICA), which received samples of ice at the age of 800,000 years.
From 1996 to 2004, the researchers drilled the Antarctic soil and reconstructed the climate history of that time. Each centimeter of the frozen core is counted: One meter of debt contains ten thousand years of climate history. At the same time, They managed to measure the concentration of the most important greenhouse gases in small air bubbles trapped in ice water. The links they discovered were clear: when the climate on the planet was cold, there was a significantly smaller amount of carbon dioxide and methane in the air than in warmer periods.
The project will include 10 countries: Italy, France, Germany, Great Britain, Switzerland, Denmark, Belgium, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlandswhich will pierce during the three Antarctic flights from mid-November to early February at a depth of 2,730 meters Find precious ice for a million and a half years.
The selected point, after a series of flights in which they used a radar to analyze layers of ice below the surface, It is one of the driest places on Earth, where the average annual temperature is 54.5 ° below zero. This site offers good resolution in the samples and safety that there is no risk of melting despite the heat flow coming from the interior of the planet.
"The drilling will cost around 30 million euros, and funding starts in June. The first logistic season in Antarctica will be between 2019/20 and the drilling season starts between 2021 and 2022., detailed Eisen.
Initial data from the core nucleus analysis by 2025, which will allow the international scientific community to start a new chapter in the fight against climate change.