Even after California banned exclusion from non-medical help for vaccines, the non-vaccinated teenager in the country has already expanded the measles in half a dozen people last year, according to a new study. Findings show that, although hardening of the hole in the law is crucial to stop the spread of measles, this is not enough.
An outbreak investigation, published today at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention Weekly report on morbidity and mortality, followed by a 15-year-old boy who returned from England in late February 2018 with measles. Shortly thereafter, he infected another boy at a scout event, the third at the school and the fourth in a tutorial center. Everyone was not vaccinated. And the epidemic does not stop there – it has continued in a complicated network of contacts.
The third boy, infected at school, was quarantined, so he did not spread it to anyone. However, public health officials did not say that the fourth boy, infected at the teaching center, was not vaccinated. He thus lost quarantine and infected his 33-year unclean uncle and his four-year-old uncle's brother.
The other boy, the one who was infected at the reconnaissance event, continued to infect the vaccinated 21-year-old a different Scout event. In this chain, the measles have stopped with the vaccinated 21-year-old. He had a less serious infection known as modified measles – when the goddess of infection is someone who is incompletely protected by the vaccine. It is possible that he did not transfer it to anyone, because people with modified goddesses tend to throw fewer viruses, says George Han, deputy health officer at the Public Health Department of Santa Clara County and the lead author of the study.
A vaccine against the goddess protects about 97% of people who receive both doses, so it does not protect everything. People who are not completely immune and people who are too young or too sick to get a vaccine rely on anyone other to vaccinate the virus to keep it. Because of this, these networks of infection among non-vaccinated people are so worrying. "We should not be fooled into a false sense of security that the new law on the vaccine will completely prevent all outbreaks in California," says Han. "It's a reminder that we need to continue vaccinating – because there are people who can not be vaccinated."
The struggle against the return of measles will have a multiple strategy, says Peter Hotez, Dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Medical School Bailor and was not involved in the study. "It has a political solution, which continues to exclude non-medical exemptions," says Hotez. "But that in itself will not be adequate." He believes that anti-vaccination propaganda should be curbed, and federal agencies will have to boost advocacy for vaccines.
It is not surprising that the measles have been so easily spread from this one boy in 2018. – the virus is incredibly infectious. It's also dangerous. Except for rash and temperature, it can cause lung inflammation, brain damage and death. Before the disease, the Goddesses have been hospitalized for around 48,000 people and killed about 400 to 500 people in the US each year, CDC says. In 2000, thanks to the widespread use of a safe and effective vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (or MMR), public health officials announced that the virus was eliminated in the United States.
However, the virus can still come with people who travel from the region where the measles are still endemic, and can spread through unvaccinated pockets of people across the United States, like in New York, New Jersey, the state of Washington and Texas. Texas and Washington are among 17 countries with legal holes that allow parents to skip the vaccination of their children because of their personal beliefs, according to the National Conference of State Legislators. But in California it's not One of these states: after the outbreak of the Disneyland-related epidemic, 147 people endangered 147 people by the end of 2014 and at the beginning of 2015, California has eliminated personal exemptions from the certificate of vaccines. This means only children with medical exceptions from a doctor can enter the kindergarten (or, if already in school, seventh grade) without a vaccine after 2016.
After the law, total exceptions were reduced, but the number of medical exemptions – especially in counties that previously had high rates of relief from conviction – rose, according to a study published in Journal of the American Medical Association The authors of the study speculated that parents who are unwilling to vaccinate their children may have been looking for doctors who were willing to write medical excuses, even if there was no medical reason for doing so.
That Could what happened in this particular outbreak of California in 2018, although the authors of today's study do not come out directly and say it. Do you remember the fourth boy – the one who was infected in the training center who continued to infect his relatives? It turns out that both the boy and his four-year-old brother received a medical exemption all a vaccine from a doctor who worked hundreds of miles away from their home. None of the boys had the main health reasons for receiving an exemption, which includes cancer treatment or organ transplantation. "We know that the medical exceptions that these two brothers received were identical, which in itself was a bit strange and did not contain these well-known medical reasons," Han said.
Currently, there is no standardized set of criteria that a patient must fulfill to receive a medical exception in California, says Han. So, one potential solution is to tighten these standards. "There is a regulation that could potentially be done to better define what constitutes a medical exception in California," says Han.
Hotes, on the one hand, is optimistic it's not housework of doctors who gave medical exceptions for non-medical reasons. But if there is one, "state licensing authority and medical boards will have to stop it," says Hotez. "Closing non-medical exemptions, as they did in California in 2016, was an important first step, but this is not the only step," he says. "There are more things to do."