Commercial crops such as grapes, peaches, berries and floral bulbs in the winter period are quiet, essentially sleeping through a seasonal cold before they grow again, bloom and sprout in the warmer months.
Critical care for commercial farmers is that they have good and synchronized tree growth. The problem in the mild winter climate is that the plants do not get enough cooling, and the continuation of growth becomes widespread with some buds that do not even grow. When the orchards of uncertain trees appear in about the same time, it usually takes care of trees and harvesting easier and cheaper – but the growth and tree trunks are controlled by unpredictable winters of winter weather.
Now a group of scientists from Jazan University in Saudi Arabia have discovered an effective new way to control the scent of grapes and other fruit plants, using a high-tech plasma to wake them from winter snow.
Work can help to extend the cultivation of fruit crops and ornamental plants in temperate climates to parts of the world where winters are mild, including southern USA, Mexico, Brazil, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East. This can also alleviate the problems of rising temperatures due to global warming in certain parts of the world.
The work was done by a team of scientists consisting of Habib Khemira, a horticulturist; Zaka-ul-Islam Mujahid, a physicist in plasma; and Taieb Tounekti, a herbal physiologist. It is expected that the artificial smell release method will become more important in the near future due to global warming, "Mujahid said, who will next week present work on the American Physical Society, 71st Annual Gas Electronics and the 60th Annual Meeting of the APS Physics Plasma Division , which will be held from 5 to 9 November at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland.
Although the method has functioned in the laboratory, it still needs to be examined on the ground and proven to be commercially feasible and economically viable in favor of industrial food production.
To sleep, Perchance to Bud
As cold winter moves towards lonely orchards, crops feel longer nights and days and adjust to make them calm. Beginning in autumn, they spilled leaves, slowed down the metabolism, and entered a "sleepy" state in which they would last through the cold months.
The plants are freed from their waterfall Jack Frost with the cold of winter. They feel cold, make cold days in the winter dead, and when many of these cold days occur, plants respond by increasing their metabolic processes, leading to a break in the navel and cracking when the warmer days of spring arrive.
However, when the plants grow in mild winter areas or the climate becomes warmer, it may not be cold enough to drop their buds in time. Sometimes with weather patterns, at the same time you will find flowers, fruits and calm buds on the same tree. In the entire orchard, this can cause asynchronous crop milling – an unwanted outcome for farmers, because it complicates operations such as pest control and increases labor costs and lowers yield.
One of the challenges of modern agriculture is finding ways to push the maximum number of buds to growing plants and at the same time to carry flowers and fruits. This would be equated with larger leaves for feeding fruits that are grown, as well as with a larger culture that will be ready to choose at the same time.
A new solution that started with an occasional discussion
Saudi Arabia team has found a new way to extract plants from a state of hiatus by subjecting them to plasma, which are special, hot, ionized gases, sometimes referred to as the fourth state of matter – in addition to solids, liquids and ordinary gases. You can find plasma in lightning strikes, star nuclei, heavenly aurory, and neon signs of old schools.
Scientists use plasma for all of the power supply of the fusion test reactor to the sterilization of medical implants. The team specifically used them to treat inactive vines.
They found that exposure to plasma causes oxidative stress within the plant, the same cold-induced signs in inactive plant cells that buds react with budding. If they treat grape clippers, the researchers have discovered that they can release the scent of the plant – and much faster than time and safer than existing artificial methods, which rely on spraying crops with chemicals.
Mujahideen said that the job started from an unusual discussion he had with his colleague Khemiri, a senior researcher at the University of Jazan University for Research and Research on Environment. Khemira described his work on oxidative stress in bud buds and found that no one tried to use plasma to cause oxidative stress and free them from scent. Soon they tested the approach, and it succeeded. Taieb analyzed the samples and realized that truly plasma treatment causes oxidative stress similar to that achieved by natural cold and hydrogen cyanamide.
"Some of the results of our first successful experiment were phenomenal and we could not believe it was true," Mujahid said. Even a few minutes of plasma treatment on buds that never saw cold weather enabled plants to achieve a similar, if not better, breakdown group as control plants that experienced optimal cold conditions (60 days after exposure to temperatures of about 5 degrees Celsius).
They tested access to different grape varieties from different areas and found that it worked reliably on all of them. Usually breeders solve the problem of lack of cooling by spraying trees with chemicals like hydrogen cyanamide. The problem is that hydrogen cyanamide or other chemicals are only effective if the plant provides a significant part of its cooling needs from natural cold. In addition, hydrogen cyanamide is also toxic to humans, wildlife, and plants themselves. That's why the chemical is banned in several countries, Khemira said.
Whether the new, greener approach that uses plasma to treat calm budgets depends on a number of things, including whether it will work effectively on the ground, as well as in the laboratory. It should be examined in crops other than grapes, and equipment costs also need to be explained.
"There is still a lot of work to test for efficiency and feasibility," Mujahid said. "We are in the process of finding appropriate parameters to take it to the field, but it could be used within a few years."
Khemira said that if the practical aspects were corrected and the new approach really proves to be commercially viable, it would revolutionize the way we grow many crops. The researchers applied for a patent for the method and delivery system.