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All Mars waters disappear in the universe through a huge hole in the atmosphere

In the atmosphere of Mars, a hole opens every two years, through which the limited water resources of Mars are released into the universe, and the rest of the water is placed on the poles.

This is a strange explanation given by those Russian and German scientists who studied the guiding behavior of the Red Planet. On Earth, scientists see that in the Mars atmosphere there are water migrating to the poles. But until now there was no explanation for the good functioning of the water circle of Mars and why the planet, once it was soaked, is now dry as a snack.

Water vapor high in the atmosphere of Mars is stunning, because the middle layer of the atmosphere of the Red Planet should completely stop the circulation of water.

"The middle part of the Mars atmosphere is too cold to keep the water vapor," researchers said in a survey published in the Geophysical Research Letters.

How does water manage to overcome this barrier in the middle layer?

Based on the computer simulations described in the study, this is associated with two unique Mars atmospheric processes.

Year in the northern hemisphere and summer in the southern hemisphere are similar. But this is not the case on Mars: since the orbits of the planets are much elongated, eccentric, it is much closer to the Sun in the southern hemisphere (which comes every two years in the Earth). So, in this part of the planet, the summer is much warmer than the summer on the northern hemisphere.

When this happens, based on the simulations of the researchers, a window opens in the middle atmosphere of Mars (a height between 60 and 90 kilometers) through which water vapor enters the upper atmosphere. At another point, due to the lack of sunlight, the Mars water circuit is almost completely turned off.

Mars is also different from the earth, and there are huge dust storms that often occur there. These storms block the sun's light, and the surface of the planet cools. However, scientists' simulations have shown that light energy that does not reach the surface of Mars accumulates in the atmosphere, heats it and creates conditions for better water transfer. Dust is covered with small water ice particles in a global storm, similar to Mars in 2017. These lightweight ice particles are more easily enters the upper atmosphere than other forms of water, so more water flows in the upper atmosphere during such periods.

Researchers have shown that dusty storms can bring even more water in the upper atmosphere from the summer of the southern hemisphere.

Two things pass through the water barrier one way or the other, overcoming the middle-barrier barrier: part of that water descends to the north and south poles, where it eventually falls. But in a high-atmosphere layer, the ultraviolet light can break the bond between hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the water molecule, so that the hydrogen returns to space, leaving oxygen.

This process can at least partly explain how Mars, once filled with water, has become such a dry place as it is now, writes researchers.

Rafi Letzter

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