Saturday , April 1 2023

Research: after the return of independence, Polish agriculture was dominated by rye potatoes


After the return of independence to Polish agriculture, the dominant culture was also potatoes. The number of horses was 17 times higher than today; these animals were used as a towing force – according to the analysis of the BGZ BNP Paribas conducted on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the independence of Poland.

As the bank's analyst BGZ BNP Paribas Paveł Virzikovski remarked immediately after Poland regained its independence, a Central Statistical Office was established, which three years later released the first data, among other things, on Polish agriculture. However, data on consumption and consumption are derived from the first surveys of the 1927 family of workers' families.

These data show that the most important crops are immediately after the First World War (now wheat). Its area of ​​cultivation in the season 1921/1922 was 4.5 million hectares, which is 25%. the area of ​​arable land in Poland. Wheat, with a cultivated area of ​​over one million hectares, was only in fourth place. The differences in the yield of these crops are significant, 100 years ago, rape yield increased by 64%. less and wheat by 77 percent. He added that the area of ​​sowing in relation to electricity was about 2 million hectares higher.

Much more potatoes were cultivated, their cultivation at that time amounted to 2.2 million hectares, and in 2017 potatoes covered an area of ​​about 320 thousand. ha

Over the course of 100 years, the number of horses has dropped significantly. Their population in 1921 was 3.2 million units and was 17 times more than in 2017. There were also more sheep – 2.18 million units compared to just 260,000. in 2017. In 1921, cattle were 22 percent. higher than that recorded in 2017. The pig population was much smaller, in 1921 it was at the level of 5.2 million units, i.e. by 45%. less than in 2017 – Virzikovsky was noticed.

The food industry was one of the main sectors of industrial processing in Poland after it became independent. The strongest branch of the food industry was sugar refineries and sugar refineries, where 36,000 employees are employed. people. The production of raw sugar in the season 1922/1923 was held in 70 factories and amounted to 315 thousand. tons, in 2017, sugar was produced by eighteen plants, which employed 3.3 thousand. people produced 2.3 million tons of white sugar.

In the 1920s, hyperinflation occurred in Poland. In January 1923, the average daily earnings of craftsmen in Warsaw amounted to 6.6 kg of bread or 12.7 liters of milk or 0.6 kg butter or 1.9 kg beef or 72.6 kg of potatoes. A month later, only 4.2 kg of bread, 7.4 l milk, 1.3 kg of beef or 29.4 kg of potatoes could be purchased for a fee from January.

It is also worth noting that 100 years ago food consumption was almost 60 percent. Total expenses – emphasized the analyst. The first survey of working-class families was carried out in 1927 in four industrial centers (Warsaw, Lodz, Zagłebie Dabrowski and Upper Silesia). On average, in this period there were 4.94 people in the working family. For comparison, in households employed in 2017, the average number of people was 3.09.

In 1927, in working-class families, food expenditures accounted for 59.7 percent. all the expenses of such a family. At the moment, the household of food and non-alcoholic drinks consumes 23%. all your expenses.

Most of the money was spent in 1927 on bread and flour, and these purchases accounted for 31.2 percent. all food expenses. The other most important thing was meat and fish (16.3 percent of food consumption), and the third most important fats (without butter, 11 percent). Consumption on milk was 8 percent, for potatoes and sugar, 6 percent.

The basis of the diet was bread and potatoes. In 1927, one person in working families consumed as much as 104 kg of bread and 175 kg of potatoes. In 2017, a household person employed 40 kg of bread and 38 kg of potatoes.

Meat was less than today, and most often there were beef. In 1927, in the working-class families, 2/3 of the total consumed meat was involved. On average, one person consumed 12.3 kg of beef a year, 4.4 kg of pork and only 0.3 kg of poultry. Now the structure of meat consumption is quite different.

Currently, livestock is the basic meat consumed in households. In 2016, one person spent 16.8 kg of poultry a year, 14.0 kg of pork and only 1 kg of beef – concluded Virzikovski. (PAP)

author: Anna Visoczanska

avi / mmu /

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