Pistol shrimp, called hunting scamp, is a strange contradiction. At only a few centimeters of length, it has a proportional size of claws and the other massive one that catches such force, resulting in a strike wave striking its prey cold. While the two parts of the claws are merged, the bubbles form, and then they rapidly collapse, throwing out a plasma bullet which again creates a flash of light and a temperature of 8,000 degrees Celsius. So – the underwater creature that fits into your palm may, with the twitching of your claw, flutter the explosion of crazy hot bubbles.
Now scientists themselves learn how to use this powerful force. Today in the diary Science Advances, the researchers explained how they formed a robotic claw after plasma pistol plasma guns to create their own plasma. It could find a number of underwater uses, when scientists make their version of one of the strangest inventions of evolution.
If everything is in the pistol, a plasma ignition hammer, the whole world really looks like a nail. She uses her hunting claw, of course, but also communicates with short picks weighing crazy 210 decibels. (The real pistol produces about 150 decibels.) Some species even use a plasma explosion to cut off the bits of the ridge for the shelter. The result is the seabed which is so noisy that it can actually disturb the sonar.
Texas A & M Technical Engineer David Staack felt that versatility might be beneficial to people. His team started getting some live pistol shrimp. Like other artisans, these animals occasionally make grease, rejecting their exoskeletons as they grow. These exoskeletons gave Staac a nice gypsum claw, which he then scanned to create a detailed 3D model. This was sent to Shapevais, commercial 3D printing, and returned the plastic version of the plasma gun gun.
This allowed Stack to experiment with a unique structure of the limbs. The upper half of the claws, which the shrimp returns back and locks, includes a "piston", which is pasted into the "socket" in the lower half of the claw. This creates a rapid flow of water that produces bubbles, also known in this situation as cavitation.
"It reminded us of a mouse," he says. "So we did some experiments where we put some mouse underwater just to see how fast the small hand will turn when you started it. We took this idea for the mouse and applied it as a way to close the claw.
In the Staack version of the claw, its upper half quickly turns on the spring rod, creating enough power to slam the piston into the socket. This action generates high-speed water streams, which in turn creates a cavity balloon, which is initially low and relatively large. But then it starts to fail.
"Water is pushing in, pushing in and pushing in, and you get very high pressures and temperatures," he adds. The temperatures are so high that they actually create a plasma that emits light, which you can also see when the gun shrimp bursts with their own claws. "While trying to push the water back, she sends a shock wave." Thus crabs bang their prey in the wild.
In the laboratory, researchers used high-speed cameras to observe a stream of water that emerges from their claws. They also showed the resulting shock waves, causing the flash of light to form as plasma.
Pistols do not have a monopoly on the creation of an underwater plasma. People protect the underwater plasma, known as plasma welding, which produces intense heat. Researchers can also make plasma in water using lasers. The problem is that these resources are ineffective. The use of plasma claws is 10 times more effective than the previously investigated methods, according to Stack. This, however, will require greater development in the scale.
This can become even more efficient, as researchers do not have to faithfully follow the biology of the pistol. In fact, Staack realized that I could reduce the size of the upper part of the claw. In a real pistol, it is tuberous because it holds the muscles that are needed for the limbs. But this robotic version is not limited by this biology.
"The replication of what the animal has done is a first step," says Stanford University Stanley Rachel Crane University, who helped develop Ninjabot, a device that replaces a strike of mantis shrimp, which similarly produces cavitation bubbles. "Then you can look at it and realize that, I do not need a huge muscle, and that's why I can cut it off. Then you can make a better system."
Researchers might even want to look at the nature of the way the system will be set up. Hundreds of species of shrimp from the pistol go to the sea, each with its own unique claw. That, and even individuals within The species is different in its morphology.
"The substrate for evolution, the only reason we made shrimps today from all these different varieties, is an individual variation," said Duke Biologist Sheila Patek, who is studying a mantis shrimp strike. While researchers can make their own changes in their claw robot, they can also draw inspiration from the inherent variety of guns to play morphology claws that are not originally 3D printed.
This diversity can one day see a device that is inspired by a gun and a cannon used in a series of fields. One approach would be to use plasmas created by claws for drilling through the rocks, because cancer in the wilderness forms a home in the ridge. Or you can use a water purification system by breaking down water into its peroxide-forming components. "These peroxides can attack organic pollutants in the water," says Staack. "If you are thinking about cleaning up communal water or cleaning wastewater, efficiency becomes very important."
And so the guns have a few more nails.
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