- Kim H Nguien, Explorer1,
- Stanton A Glantz, professor2 3 4,
- Casey N Palmer, research analyst1,
- Laura A Schmidt, professor15 6 7
- 1Philip R Lee Institute of Health Policy Studies, California University, San Francisco, CA 94148, USA
2School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
3Center for Tobacco Research and Control, San Francisco, California, USA
4Institute of Cardiovascular Research, San Francisco, California, USA
5Global Health Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA
6Clinical and translational science institute, San Francisco, California, USA
7Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
- Correspondence with: L A Schmidt
Sweet drinks are a risk factor for obesity and cardiometabolism.1234 Little children are particularly susceptible to the convincing impact of ad for a sweet drink, 567 and the World Health Organization urged governments to tighten restrictions on food and beverages to protect children.
The sale of children's sugar drinks by multinational corporations and the need to regulate it has been a public concern since the 1970s.910111213 In 1974, the Better Business Bureau created a Child Advertising Campaign promoting children's "responsible" advertising of children through industry. In 2006, in response to calls for government regulation, the industry created its own Food and Drink Initiative for Children (CFBAI) .14 CFBAI members are committed to "changing the combination of child-centered advertising (" targeted advertising in children) to encourage healthy dietary choices, "to" devote 100% of your child-focused advertising to foods that are better for you, or not to engage in such advertising, "and to" limit the use of third-party signs faces, celebrities and films ins. "15
Comparisons were made between the tobacco industry and the non-alcoholic beverage industry, 1617, including similarities in aggressive activities to counter taxation and marketing restrictions, some wonder: "Is sugar the new tobacco?" The brands of beverages were once owned and developed by tobacco companies (Table 1, see additional information on bmj.com for document sources and research methods).
R J Reinolds and Philip Morris, the two largest American tobacco-based conglomerate, began to buy non-alcoholic drinks brands in the 1960s and were key in developing leading brands for children, including Hawaiian Bush, Kool-Aid, Capri Sun and Tang. Tobacco managers have transferred their knowledge of marketing to young people and expand product lines using colors, tastes and marketing strategies that were originally designed to sell cigarettes. They ultimately sold these brands to globalized food and beverage corporations, which, despite the promise of the most-obliged CFBAI, continued in 2018 to implement some of the integrated marketing campaigns for tobacco companies to reach very young children.
R J Reinolds and Havaiian Punch
Until the 1960s, the sugar industry was dominated by Coca-Cola and Pepsi, which sold brands without giving priority to children compared to adults.21 During the 1960s, both companies began experimenting with new products: Coca-Cola launched Fanta , Tab and Sprite Pepsi was launched by Teem, Mountain Dev and Diet Pepsi, but none was intended exclusively for children.2223242526
In May 1962, Vice President of RJ Reinolds Industries authorized the company's labs to develop a form of powdered sugar and fizz tablets and to conduct market research with them (see Table A on bmj.com). Director of Research, Reynolds's Biochemical Research Manager wrote: "It's easy to describe RJ Reynolds just as a tobacco company. In a wider and much less restrictive way, however, R J Reinolds is in business with taste. "2829 He noted that," many aromas for tobacco [would] be useful in food, drink and other products "creating" big financial returns ". In 1963, Reinolds's "idea of compressing the dusty powder on the stick" became the King Stir Stick, enabling children to create a sweet drink by mixing the water rod30. In the same year, Reinolds increased production to one million sticks a month.30
In 1963, Reinolds bought Pacific Havaiian Products, made by Havaiian Punch.31 At that time, Pacific Havaiian sold Havaiian Punch in two flavors as a homemade cocktail mixer for adults (Figure 1). From 1966 to 1977, Reynolds conducted at least 34 market research with children and housewives, including taste tests that assessed sweetness, tastes and colors for extending the Hawaiian drilling product line (Table B to bmj.com).
Child preference was a priority. The tasting taste test for apples showed hosts preferred amber, while children liked red, which resulted in a recommendation to "discontinue the further development of Amber Apple products and … to introduce Red Apple." at least 16 flavors and 24 products. 32333435363738
Hawaiian Punch's cartoon mascot, Punchi, first appeared in 1962, just before Reinolds bought the brand. Reynolds made Punchy "the focus of the overall marketing approach". 39 During 1963-79, Punchi was involved in television commercials, magazines, weekly comic books and school books, toys, clothes, glasses and watches. 40414243RJR Warl, employee, noted that[h]The on-screen presence on the spot gives instant appeal "and that Punchi was" The best seller ever had a drink ".
The Havaiian Punch was initially available in cans of 46 oz (1.36 L). In 1973, Reynolds introduced cans open to 8 oz (230 ml) as "take the size … perfect for children. Easy to hold, easy to open and drink perfectly. "40 Reynolds introduced a four-flavor powder version in 1976, generating $ 50 million (38 million; 44 million euros) in the first year. 43 Reynolds's press release that his strategy of introducing the same product in liquid and powder form was" one of the most successful in the food industry. "45 Until 1978, Reinolds made five forms: liquid, frozen, concentrated and over-saturated and unsweetened in powder. In 1983, Reinolds introduced the first nationally distributed aseptic packaging ("juice box"), a serving drink sold as a "handy little card that comes with its own straw" with the slogan "Go to Hawaiian when you're at 46. Chief Executive Officer of the Reinolds Del Food Del Monte remarked: "Havaiian Punch increased by about 34% last year, which was mainly for the convenience and accessibility of aseptic packages, mainly among younger users." 47
The 1985 report states that scientists at Reinolds's Flavor Laboratory "create a formula for drinking, starting with our knowledge of tastes that we already produce or that we have in our flavor library. We are looking for new and different combinations. Some work, others do not, but all of this contributes to our knowledge bank … Drinks attract consumers through a complex system of taste, smell and looks. Ideal … is to leave people wanting more. "48 An analysis by Reynolds rivals, Philip Morris of 1985, concluded:
Reinolds presence in almost all parts of the trade license[ted] crossing brands in different parts of the store and different forms of packaging. For example, Havaiian Punch, part of the original RJR Foods, with an annual sales of more than $ 200 million, has grown with the addition of automated slot machines and, recently, an aseptically packaged paperboard. Historically, the food industry was a manufacturing and distribution business – a company that keeps its packaging / technology and distribution pathway, whether preserved or frozen. In our opinion, successful companies in the future will develop brands with the extension of lines and goods in all parts of the store.49
Reinolds sold Havaiian Punch Procter & Gamble in 1990. The brand is currently owned by Dr. Pepper Snapple, who continues to sell drinks using Punchi.
Philip Morris on the market for sweet drinks
General Foods bought the Kool-Aid brand in 1953 from Perkins Products, which sold it as a cheap alternative to family suckers. 5051 In 1985, as part of the effort to diversify into the food and beverage industry, 525354 Food, including Kool-Aid beverages. A year later, Philip Morris's directors said marketing was "quite well balanced between an appeal for mum and children. We decided to focus our marketing on children, where we know that our strength is the greatest. This year, Kool-Aid will be the strongest promoted trademark for children in America. "5556 Philip Morris halved Kool-Aid consumption for the media 1986-87. To mums in half (from 20.1 to 10.7 million dollars) and doubled the child marketing budget (from $ 2.8m to $ 6m) .57
The following year, Philip Morris launched a $ 45 million "Vacki vild Kool-Aid Style" campaign with a redesigned Kool-Aid mascot – a huge anthropomorphic glass pitcher.58 The campaign was developed by Grei Advertising and is intended for ages 6-12 years. The Gray Executive Director noticed: "We found that if adults are doing these reactions to slapsticks, they fall to the banana bark, the wig drops, if the adults looked dumb because they saw Kool-Aid Man and were shocked and scared – the children are loved because they were under control. "25 In 1993, Executive Creative Director Grey said:" Kids want something their own, "and the Kool-Aid brand image was" wacky, wild and fun and just for kids. " Drinks that are for children only. "25
Co-operation with Mattel and Nintendo led to branded toys, including Barbie and Hot Vheels.6061 The Vacki Varehouse Loyalty Program enabled children to use Kool-Aid shopping for gifts and prize-winning games. Philip Morris Beverage Division Director described it as "our version of the Marlboro Countri Store" 62, a 1972 cigarette loyalty program. 63 Philip Morris's 1992 analysis called Kool-Aid Vacki Varehouse "the best-known childrens marketing vehicle". 64
Between 1986 and 2004, Philip Morris developed at least 12 new products of liquid and frozen Kool-Aid and 11 new flavor lines (supplementary tables C and D). Philip Morris added about 36 flavors to test kids on the Kool-Aid line, with names such as Cherri Cracker and Kickin's Kiwi Lime. Some integrated colors with cartoon characters, such as the "Great Bluedini", are sold under the mascot of magicians. Executive Director Philip Morris said: "A lot of adults can go," Oh my God, "but the kids are really excited about it;" in a market survey, "children just say it's blue is cold."
"Magic Tvists" and "Mad ScienTvists" displayed colors that changed when mixed in water, as Philip Morris, director of the company, observed: "Children love colors and" twisted "blend of flavors.
Philip Morris held "synergy" meetings to coordinate direct marketing through cigarettes and other affiliates.67 Demography, including the age of children and the way of buying households, is compiled into a comprehensive consumer database used by all affiliates.68 Children were sent exclusive Marvel strip series, Adventures Kool-Aid Man, 53 and Philip Morris magazine, What's hot, 69 with pictures and gifts of the Kool-Aid brand (eg Kool-Aid samples, music bands on order) .64What's hot he had a turnover of two million in 1988.70
In 1993, Philip Morris sponsored cross-promotions and production tie-ins with Mattel, Nintendo and others to achieve "ultimate promotion for children", according to the senior manager of the brand.71 Until 1998-2000. promotion with Nickelodeon, intended for ages 2 to 11, 727374 promoted "nail glasses" (3-D glasses) and "smell-o-vision" (fragrance cards), which enabled children to turn on in the Kool-Aid Cartoon and Internet cartoon scene.72757677 The integrated marketing campaign included simultaneous displays, mailing, package inserts and sponsorship in the store (for example, Maci's Thanksgiving Parade) in a "fully integrated event on all touch points in the world of the child, "says Philip Morris. director of marketing services.747678 considered it as a measure to raise the level of future childhood events when it reached 95% of target 6-12 years.
In 1991, Morris's subsidiary, Kraft Foods, licensed North America's rights to Capri Sun79 – a European fruit drink in a straw-embedded film straw film marketed in the United States from 1981.8081828384. Philip Morris renamed it as "All Natural Beverage for Children in cold purse, "targeted 6-14 years.62 Philip Morris added vibrant colors and scenes on the beach on the packaging to provoke" California cool. " "8085 In 1994, Philip Morris transferred Capri Sun as a lunch drink, adding it to Lunchbacks. "Fun packing" of pre-packaged foods.86 The sales of ports increased by 34% in 1994 and by 1998 they exceeded $ 500 million.
In the 1995 Philip Morris campaign promoting Capri Sun, surfers and skaters appeared as well as premium packages, such as football magazines, mountain bike stickers and trade games via co-operation with Trek (Bicycles) and RollerBlade (in-line skates). bags carried sports thematic holographic images.90 A 1995 Philip Morris article Globe The magazine attributed the "growing brand success to a combination of unique packaging and pictures" because it has "a unique, leading image – very cool, sporty and active in the open" 90 pouch of 11 oz (325 mL), 67% # 39; For teenagers & # 39; & # 39; started in 2000
General Foods was developed by Tang 1957. The orange-tasting powder, which contains sugar, artificial color and vitamin C, is sold to families for breakfast. Tang was popularized through association with the US space program.92 In 1992, under the ownership of Philip Morris, Tang products were repackaged from the canisters powder in foil bags in order to "expand their appeal away from their picture as a" just "drink for breakfast. Tang's media strategy was focused on mothers via daily television, but after sales fell by 14% 1995.95 Philip Morris leaders again focused their brand on children aged 9 to 14 (tweens).
Tang was positioned as a "beaker of a glass" for tweens that are considered "old for Kool-Aid, but are too young for orange juice." 62 Promotions transform Tang as an "extreme orange breakfast for today's extreme waves" an innovative campaign in which orangutans live.62 Tang was re-launched in 1997 through media collaboration with DC Comics MAD Magazine, Sports Illustrated Jr.Sports sponsorships by Major League Soccer 9697 and Schvinn Bikes helped "build credibility with teenagers and pre-school age". 98 The Loyalty Campaign of the 2000 "Dream Room" included the prize money for the Soni Award. The business director said that the goal was to "touch the tweens in a cool way"
Philip Morris developed his brand of sweet drinks by 2007, when he separated from Kool-Aid, Capri Sun and Tang under Kraft. Kool-Aid and Capri Sun stay with Kraft-Heinz in the US, but Tang is now licensed by Mondelez around the world and Kool-Aid by Coca-Cola in Europe. Kool-Aid and Capri Sun are still using products and marketing campaigns (Kool-Aid Jammers, Capri Sun's Foil Bag with Sports Images) developed by Philip Morris.
In 2017, Mondelez was still developing and selling new "fun" flavors in individual packs.102 The Mondelez International website advertises Mumbai to launch a new Tang flavor sold with a handy bottle of syrup so that "Every child can burn his thirst this summer." 103
Both Reinolds and Philip Morris used mascots, children's packing technologies and advertising messages to indicate children's desire for autonomy, play and news. Production lines included stickers, toy pills, entertainment bottles and color-changing beverages. New flavors with names such as Purplesaurus Rek and Blastin's Berri Cherri have been formulated through numerous child product tests. In marketing campaigns, characters from cartoons related to children's aspirations were used, an approach that was also used to create brand loyalty to the brand of cigarettes104 – for example, Reinolds use Joe Camel to recruit young people for smoking.105 Tobacco companies also promoted their drinks using integrated marketing strategies originally designed to sell cigarettes, encircling children with consistent product messages at home, commerce, school, sports stadium and theme park.
Судски спорови у САД довели су до краја Јое Цамел106, а закони 2009. забранили су употребу цртаних ликова за промоцију цигарета.107 Оквирна конвенција Светске здравствене организације о контроли дувана из 2003. обавезала је стране да забране или озбиљно ограниче маркетинг и да уведу снажна здравствена упозорења на дувански производи.108 У 2016. години Чиле је постао глобални лидер са својим савезним законом којим се уводе сличне ознаке упозорења и строга тржишна ограничења за нездраву храну и пића која се фокусирају на дјецу.109110 Законом је прописано да се храна и пиће не могу промовирати дјеци с комерцијалним „удицама“ као што су цртани маскоти.109111 Поновно договорени Сјеверноамерички споразум о слободној трговини, који су Канада, Мексико и САД потписали у новембру 2018. године, али још увијек нису ратифицирани, 112 садржи одредбе које се могу употријебити за предувјет (или барем одлагање и ослабити) националне и субнационалне мјере које ће слиједити Чилеов модел за означавање фронт-оф-пацкаге у Канади, Мексику и САД-у.
Са изузетком Др Пеппер Снапплеа, сви садашњи власници дјечјих брендова пића који су овдје проучавани су се обавезали на судјеловање у индустријским добровољним споразумима за ограничавање селективног маркетинга нездравих пића дјеци млађој од 12 година. дуванске компаније – укључујући играчке од бренда, лиценцирање брендова за играчке и цртане ликове на амбалажи – заправо не циљају на дјецу и стога су искључене из споразума. Овде наведени докази показују да су те маркетиншке технике, које и даље превладавају, посебно дизајниране да привуку дјецу замагљивањем рекламе забавним садржајем на начин који је сада у супротности са условима споразума вођених у индустрији. Због тога је мало вјероватно да ће добровољни кодекси индустрије дати адекватно рјешење проблема и потребне су нам добро проведене владине регулативе.
Дуванске компаније купиле су брендове безалкохолних пића да би се диверсификовали
Индустријски документи показују да су примењивали маркетиншке стратегије намењене деци да развију брендове
Боје, укуси и амбалажа и цртани ликови прилагођени деци су коришћени за промоцију производа
Иако су брендови продати прехрамбеним компанијама, маркетиншке технике остају у употреби упркос добровољним споразумима да се дјеци не рекламирају нездрави производи
Захваљујемо Цлаире Бриндис, Цристин Кеарнс, Ериц Цросбие и Марк Пертсцхук за савјет, Стевен Домингуез за помоћ при уређивању копија, те уреднике и рецензенте Тхе БМЈ за корисне сугестије.
Аутори и извори: Сви аутори су допринели прикупљању података, анализи и интерпретацији. КХН и ЛС су саставили рукопис и сви аутори су допринели ревизији важног интелектуалног садржаја: КХН је гарант.
Конкурентни интереси: Прочитали смо и разумели политику БМЈ-а о проглашењу интереса и изјавили да је рад подржан од стране фондације Лаура и Јохн Арнолд, ЦроссФит Фоундатион и УС Натионал Цанцер Институте (ЦА 087472). Фондери нису имали никакву улогу у дизајну, вођењу, прикупљању, управљању, анализи и интерпретацији података или у припреми, прегледу или одобравању рукописа.
Провенијенција и оцјењивање од стране колега: Није наручено; екстерно рецензирани.